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THE THEEE SUCCESSIVE  SITES  OF THE CITY.                           125
The hill known as the KLans ka Tila just outside the south5 or, as it is called,
the Holi Gate of the city, is supposed to be the one from the summit of which
the tyrant of that name was tumbled down by Krishna. General Cunningham
suggests that this might be one of the seven great stiipas mentioned by the
Chinese pilgrims, and adds that on the north of the city there are two hills still
bearing the names of Anand and Vinayaka, titles which they specify. But in
this it appears that he was misinformed, as no such localities can be traced.
Of the hills to the north of Mathura, the most conspicuous are the Kailas and
Mahal* or Jaysinhpura khera, sometimes called the Ganes from the Ghat of that
name which is immediately below it. An Anant tirthaj easily to be confounded
with Anand, is noted in the Mathura Mahatmya ; and the fact that Vinayaka,
besides its Buddhist meaning, is also an epithet of Ganes, may have given rise
to an error in the other name. The Elans ka Tila certainly appears to be pri-
marily of natural formation and hence to have been selected as the river
boundary of the old city wall. The whole country^ indeed, has been broken up
into heights and hollows of indefinite number and extent: but most ancient
Buddhist sites must be looked for at a greater distance from the river and out-
side the modern city, in what is now open country at the back of the katra,
and in the direction of Maholi, the ancient Madhu-puri, where the aboriginal
Madhu held his court. Subsequently to his defeat, the Aryan city was
built in thİ neighbourhood of the present Katra and the temple of Bhutesvar;
and, being £he seat of the new Government, it appropriated in a special way
the name which formerly had denoted, not the capital, but the whole extent of
territory. This view is confirmed by observing that, philologicallyj * Mathura1
appears a more fitting name for a country than for a city, and one that could
be applied to the latter only inferentklly. The present city is the third in
order and has for its centre the Fort; as the second had the tempiİ of Bhutesvar,
and the first the grove of Mftdhn-ban. Thus, speaking generally, the further
wİ move back from the city in thİ direction of Maaoli, the İMet mil probably
bİ the date of any antiquities that may be discovered.
* So called from & dwelling-house last- was balls there bj Skwae Jay Sioh.